Vacation SOS: How To Keep Sunburn From Ruining Your Beach Vacation

how to avoid a sunburnI’ve seen it happen a million times. My friends and I will be on a beach vacation. They’ll make fun of me for the measures I take to protect my skin. They say, “I want to get a little color!” And at the end of the first day, they are toasted. Literally. Lobster red. And I go out the next day alone, because my precautions have saved my skin from burning. I’m the only one who’s not miserable. I’ve told you how to pick a sunscreen; now I’ll tell you how to avoid a sunburn. I’m going to share my secrets with you today. This is how I avoid the burn and enjoy all the days of my beach vacation.

  • Get a good application each day before you go out. I apply sunscreen… and lots of it… before I hit the beach. Make sure you don’t miss a spot by applying sunscreen before you even put on your bathing suit. Remember that your skin starts absorbing UV before you’ve posted up, so make sure you’re ready from the moment you hit the beach.
  • Reapply every hour. Yes, it seems excessive. But if you’re sitting out in the sun, it must be done. I hate reapplying at the beach… you’re sweaty and sandy and gross. So use an aerosol spray that also has a cooling effect to get that SPF boost. You’ll cool down and keep your skin protected. I like the Neutrogena Fresh Cooling Body Mist. But make sure to pay attention to my spray sunscreen tips! Give yourself a solid spray (check this FutureDerm article for tips) and make sure to stand downwind. I once watched a loved one spray himself down, but the wind blew all the sunscreen off and back in his face. He was a lobster for the rest of the trip and completely miserable while I sat by the pool. Moral of this story? I’m always right. And apply more of your spray sunscreen than you think you need in a wind-free zone.
  • Use an umbrella. I know. It’s one more thing to carry. But I promise you’ll welcome that shade when the midday sun hits. I swear by it.
  • Keep a cover-up handy. It may make you warmer, but cover-ups can provide a little relief when your skin starts to bake. Stay outside but keep those sensitive areas covered up between the hours of 10am and 2pm (longer if you feel the heat in your skin). You can also try some of the UPF clothing. Let me know if you feel it makes a difference.
  • Wear a hat. You can glam it up with a wide-brimmed straw hat. It makes a huge difference in how much sun damage your face sees.

I love hanging out on the beach. I’m not anti-sun; I’m pro-safe sun. [Tweet this!] So I am extra cautious when it comes to protecting my skin. Make sure to follow these tips to prevent a sunburn. Nothing ruins a beach vacation like a sunburn on the first day.

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Top Picks for Sunscreens

best sunscreen skin care product recommendationSummer brings heat waves, watermelon, and fun in the sun. It also brings a lot of questions about sunscreens. I’ve talked about how to pick a sunscreen. Today, I’m sharing some of my top picks with you.

When I look for a sunscreen, I look first for a mineral filter. I prefer physical blocks like titanium dioxide and zinc oxide for several reasons. Mineral sunscreens protect your skin from UV damage, and they are also anti-inflammatory. Zinc oxide is the primary ingredient in diaper cream; it’s known to reduce redness and soothe irritation. Mineral sunscreens are also less likely to cause reactions, so I always recommend them for my sensitive or allergic clients. Mineral sunscreens have a tendency to be thicker, so I know that an oily skin type is going to want a lighter texture. Sometimes you’ll need to go a chemical filter in this case. Remember, the best sunscreen is the one you’ll use!

True Natural All Natural Sunscreen SPF 30My first pick is the True Natural All Natural Sunscreen SPF 30. I’ve linked to the one for baby, but there are several available. I stumbled onto this one at the drugstore one day, and I’ve recommended it ever since. It has a pure mineral sunscreen, and the rest of the ingredients are a blend of truly natural ingredients. It’s moisturizing enough to be an all-in-one product.

Who will love it: Dry skin types, natural skin types, sensitive skin types

Clarins UV Plus HP SPF 40

 

The Clarins UV Plus Day Screen SPF 40 is a classic bestseller, and for good reason. It is super lightweight, but still a 100% mineral sunscreen. It absorbs quickly and can be used over any daytime product, from serums to moisturizers. Clarins claims to be a botanically based line, and that bothers me because they really aren’t. But if you’re looking for a lightweight sunscreen, this does the trick.

Who will love it: Oily skin types, people who want lightweight textures

 

bareMinerals SPF 30I mentioned this one in my summer essentials post, but I’m bringing it up again because I just like it that much. My favorite sunscreen touch-up product is the bareMinerals SPF 30 Natural Sunscreen. Sunscreens are only effective when used properly, and proper use means regular reapplication. This is a great way to touch up your sunscreen and mattify oiliness without budging your makeup. The brush is softer than most of the other powder sunscreens on the market, so it’s much nicer for sensitive skin.

Who will love it: Makeup wearers who want to reapply, oily skin types

Boscia BB Cream

I really love my BB cream. I’ve been using the Boscia B.B. Cream that features an SPF 27 in a mineral filter. It’s got a tint to it, so you get coverage and complexion evening all in the same step. It also has treatment benefits; it has licorice root extract and arbutin to help with pigmentation. It also has ingredients that act as a skin primer, so it smooths texture and fine lines. I wear mine almost every day. It’s lightly hydrating, but dry skin types will still want to use  a moisturizer.

Who will love it: Girls on the go who still want to look polished

Do you have a favorite sunscreen? Tell me about it in the comments!

 

 

 

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How To Pick the Best Sunscreen

how to pick the best sunscreenIt’s that time of year. The sun is shining. The weather is warm. Who doesn’t want to be outside? But being outside more means that you need to up your sunscreen protection. And who hasn’t stood in the sunscreen aisle at the store and been completely overwhelmed with the options? How do you find the best one?

The first decision I make is based on the sunscreen ingredients. There are two kinds of sunscreen ingredients: inorganic sunscreens, or mineral filters, and organic sunscreens, or chemical filters. Don’t let the inorganic or organic labels confuse you. Mineral filters are generally considered the “natural” sunscreen, because the minerals occur in nature. Both types of sunscreen ingredients protect from UVA and UVB damage, but they do it in completely different ways. Mineral sunscreens (inorganic) work by deflecting UV rays away from the skin, essentially acting as a mini-mirror. Chemical filters (organic) work by absorbing the UV rays and neutralizing them before they can hit the living layers of the skin and cause damage.

Although both types of sunscreens are approved by the FDA, there are pros and cons to each.

Chemical filters

Chemical filters work by neutralizing UV damage in the very uppermost layers of the skin (the stratum corneum). Chemical sunscreens have had the most controversy in the last few years. Originally they were the most effective forms of protection. Now, we know that they are more likely to cause adverse reactions and allergies in reactive skin types. Although we don’t always know why sunscreens cause allergic reactions, there is some speculation that, because chemical sunscreens release small amounts of heat as they neutralize UV rays, more reactive skin types might be overstimulated by this and more likely to react.

These seem like overwhelming negatives, so why would you choose a chemical sunscreen? The simplest answer is that even with all the negatives, they are still effective at protecting the skin. They are easier to formulate with and can be used for lightweight products. They are easy to apply and do not feel as greasy. They also do not create the blue tint on deeper skin tones that mineral sunscreens can cause. If your preferences lie in formulation, you may prefer a chemical sunscreen.

Mineral sunscreens

Mineral sunscreens use the ingredients titanium dioxide and zinc oxide. They are typically less likely to cause reactions because they lay on the surface of the skin instead of penetrating to the deeper layers, making them inert. Additionally, zinc oxide is a known anti-inflammatory and can soothe irritated skin.

Mineral sunscreens are reflective, and I believe they provide better protection against pigmentation. UV rays are deflected before they have a chance to cause damage.

Unfortunately, with mineral sunscreens, formulations generally turn out thicker and creamier. If you are a dry skin type, this may be fine for you. But oily and acne prone types may find it difficult to find a mineral sunscreen that is lightweight. Darker skin tones may also have complaints; mineral sunscreens are famous for leaving a blue, ashy cast. Because the minerals are white, they can be difficult to blend.

Here’s a breakdown of what skin type may prefer which kind of sunscreen ingredient:
[column-group]
[column]Chemical Sunscreens
Oily skin types
Acne prone skin types
Deeper skin tones
People who prefer lighter textures
[/column]
[column]Mineral Sunscreen
Dry skin types
Reactive or allergic skin types
Pigmented skin tones
People who prefer natural ingredients
People who like creamier textures
Children
[/column]
[/column-group]

After you’ve decided which ingredients are right for you, you’ll need to pick your number. SPFs go up to 100 these days, but an SPF of 30 is 97% effective when used correctly. Keep in mind that higher SPFs require a higher chemical load, as it becomes more difficult to formulate high SPFs with titanium dioxide and zinc oxide. Allergic or sensitive types may find it difficult to use sunscreens with high SPFs for this reason.

Which one is right for you?

Now the million dollar question: which sunscreen is right for you?

My preference is to use a strictly mineral sunscreen, but it may be difficult to find a mineral sunscreen that is only mineral. Many formulations that use a mostly mineral sunscreen may still include some chemical filters simply because it keeps the product lighter. Often I will layer my sunscreens and use a mineral powder on top to get as much protection as possible while still keeping textures light.

Ultimately, the most important step in sunscreen is the application part, so make sure to buy one that you will use. The sunscreen that protects you best is the one that is on your skin, not in the drawer. [Tweet this!]

 

 

Speak your mind! How do you pick a sunscreen? Leave a comment below or join the conversation on Facebook and tell me what you think!

What I’m Loving Now: Summer Essentials

Summer is upon us, and it’s time to switch up products in your skin care routine. I love summer, but it definitely requires some makeup and skin care product tweaks. Since I love to be in the sun, my summer essentials center around ones that protect my skin from UV damage by amping up my sunscreen but allow me to indulge in sidewalk cafes and afternoons in the park. Here are some of the things I rely on to keep my skin healthy in the summer.

Sunscreen is so important in the summer. And for sunscreen, the key is bareMinerals SPF 30 natural sunscreenin reapplication. So how do you reapply like you should without messing up your makeup? I love the bareMinerals SPF 30 Natural Sunscreen. There are lots of touch-up sunscreen powders on the market, but I like this one because the brush is soft, and the sunscreen comes in several tinted powders to prevent that blue cast that mineral sunscreens are infamous for. Another bonus of touch-up sunscreens like this? You get a mattifying bonus if you’ve gotten a little shiny.

Korres Yoghurt Cooling Gel After-SunThe KORRES Greek Yoghurt Cooling Gel is one of my summer essentials. If you’ve ignored my advice about reapplying your sunscreen and gotten a nasty sunburn, this is one of my favorite rehabilitation products. It’s lightweight, anti-inflammatory, and hydrating. It has a cooling sensation when you apply it, so it takes the heat out of the burn. And yogurt has natural healing properties to repair damaged summer skin.

 

I like lighter textures in the summer, so I usually iS Clinical Hydra Cool serumswitch my skin care routine to use just a serum underneath a sunscreen. Skin that’s been in the sun is usually skin that’s dehydrated, so I try to get as much hydration as I can. One of my favorite hydration serums is the iS Clinical Hydra-Cool Serum. It’s light, super hydrating, and even includes a brightening agent to control summer pigmentation.

Urban Decay 24/7 Glide-On Eye liner, Zero

 

 

Sweaty summers make me switch to waterproof eyeliners. The Urban Decay 24/7 Glide-On Eye Pencil is one of my all time favorite eyeliners. I’m a black eyeliner kind of gal, so my favorite color is Zero, but sometimes it’s fun to wear a bright turquoise like Deep End or funky purple like Vice.

Sircuit Cosmeceuticals Savior Problem Skin Cleanser

Summer increases oil production, and that increases the tendency to break out. Even my super dry skin can get too greasy and break out in the summer, so I keep it under control by using a salicylic acid wash a few times a week. My favorite is the Sircuit Skin Savior problem skin cleanser, which breaks down oil and helps unclog pores, as well as having a light cooling effect from a touch of menthol.

These are a few of my favorites. What are some of your summer essentials? Tell me in the comments, or join the conversation on Facebook.

 

 

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Get Your Skin Summer Ready

The rest of the country may have been experiencing summer for a few weeks now, but New York City is officially in the middle of a heat wave. Depending on your skin type, your skin may thrive in the summer, or it may get your skin summer ready turn into a big mess.

Typically all skin types, from oily to dry, will start to produce more oil. The heat and humidity makes us sweatier and, before you realize it, you may be breaking out more than normal. It can also help skin types that are prone to conditions like eczema and psoriasis minimize outbreaks.

Here are some tips to get your skin summer ready.

  • Add a salicylic acid wash. Even drier skin types can benefit from a salicylic acid wash a couple of times a week to help control the excess sweat and oil. If you’re normally a dry skin type, try a salicylic acid wash two to three times a week. Oilier skin types may benefit from daily usage. Most salicylic acid washes are found with a 2% concentration normally, so adjust your usage if you’ve found something stronger.
  • Lighten up those textures. Dry winter skin and harsh climates beg for creamy, rich textures. Summer calls for lighter lotions. Heavy creams combined with extra oil production creates the perfect storm for breakouts. Put your creams aside and look for lightweight or oil-free lotions. You may even like a little oil control this time of year.
  • Try an acne treatment. If the summer heat has you breaking out a couple times a week, it may be time to try an acne-control serum. Your skin may just need that extra control. Look for something with a blend of acids, alpha hydroxy acids like glycolic and lactic and beta hydroxy acids like salicylic. Daily usage under a moisturizer will keep your skin clearer.
  • Amp up your SPF. Warm weather sends people outside, whether it’s beach vacations, spending weekends on the lake, or even just dining outside more often. Make sure you’ve got your skin protected when you’re outside by upping your SPF protection. I like to keep mineral powders in my bag for touch-ups if I end up outside, so I can reapply my SPF without messing up my makeup (and getting a little extra shine control). I also recommend swapping your morning moisturizer with SPF to a dedicated sunscreen. I like the lighter combination of a hydrating serum and a sunscreen in the summer and find it’s just enough for even my dry skin.
  • Get a pro peel. I’m a huge fan of peels, and I believe that they are worth the extra investment in a facial. Super oily skin and acne-prone types may benefit from a salicylic acid peel a couple of times in the summer for added oil and acne control. Drier types can still benefit; peels remove excess dead skin cells and help keep pores clear. The caveat? Make sure to wear your SPF and don’t plan to peel right before or after a beach vacation.

 

 

Speak your mind! How do you tweak your skin care routine for the summer? Leave a comment below or join the conversation on Facebook and tell me what you think!

5 Commandments for Life Long Good Skin

5 commandments for a lifetime of good skinAfter a long discussion about the best products, my client asked me to name the one thing you absolutely have to do to have great skin for life. I couldn’t narrow it down to just one. Instead, I have the five things that you must do to maintain your skin for life.

  • Wear SPF every day. Start young. UV damage causes 80% of aging, including collagen damage, pigmentation, and potential skin cancer. Obviously the best way to avoid the problem of aging is to protect yourself from the biggest cause of it. I am not anti-sun. I am pro-SPF. [Tweet this!]
  • Wash your face nightly. All day long, your skin protects your insides from pollution, dirt, and grime.  We wear makeup, we sweat, and we get oily. Do yourself a favor and wash all that junk off your face before your skin goes into its most reparative state. Bonus points for giving it peptides and antioxidants to use at night.
  • Quit smoking. I know, smokers hate to hear about all the bad things that smoking does. But if lung cancer doesn’t give you a good enough reason to quit, maybe the increased frequency of blackheads and sallow complexion will.
  • Get enough moisture. Maintaining proper moisture levels keeps the skin soft and supple. Hydrated skin always looks younger than dry, weathered skin. Stave off wrinkles longer by selecting a moisturizer with plenty of antioxidants.
  • Exfoliate regularly, but gently. Exfoliation helps to stimulate cell turnover and remove dulling dead skin cells. I prefer enzyme and acid peels because they provide the most complete exfoliation, as well as cellular regeneration and hydration.

I can make a million recommendations to help you get the best skin of your life. But everything boils down to whether you’re taking care of it, not how expensive your moisturizer is. What goes inside is as important as what goes on the outside, so make sure you take care of your skin from the inside out if you want to maintain your skin for life.

 

 

Speak your mind! Leave a comment below or join the conversation on Facebook and tell me what you think!

Time Crunch

Everyone is pressed for time these days. Not many of us have lots of free time to spend on a skin care routine, myself included. But, no one wants to look like they spent no time on themselves… so how do you get your best skin in just a few minutes a day? Here are some of my favorite skin care tips to help busy people get their glow … fast! [Tweet this!]

  • Consolidate your steps. I love to use shower time to exfoliate, either with a quick glycolic acid cleanser a few times a week, or by once a week using an exfoliating mask with fruit enzymes or glycolic acid while I condition my hair.
  • Pick products that have multiple benefits. Vitamin C is a great ingredient with multiple benefits (anti-oxidant protection, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging). Pick a moisturizer with a sunscreen in the morning; or, in the summer, just use a sunscreen. Retinol can be used to address acne, wrinkles, and pigmentation and should be used at night.
  • Focus on one skin care concern to address at a time. What bothers you most? Is it frequent breakouts? Hydration? Anti-aging? If you can’t find a product to address all of your concerns (a tall order sometimes!), find a serum that addresses your first concern, and use it at night.
  • Skip unnecessary steps. There are very few benefits to a toner, in my opinion, so I skip this step when I’m rushed or in a hurry. Or, I put my toner in a spray bottle and spritz it on right out of the shower, before I moisturize.

I can honestly say that I rarely spend more than five minutes on my skin care routine. Most of my speed comes from just knowing what I’m going to put on and having it available to grab quickly. The rest comes from careful product selection beforehand. I know what my concerns are, and I’ve found product that meets as many of my concerns as possible.

What tips do you do to take the best care of your skin in as little time as possible?

 

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Sunny Summer Days

This past Memorial Day weekend marks the unofficial start to summer. Now everyone can look forward to months of beaches and BBQs and fun in the sun. Summer can also mean dramatic changes in your skin that can often wreak havoc. Read on for some ideas on avoiding trouble and cruising through summer with a glow.

Changes of season are a great time to revisit your skincare routine.  Everyone experiences changes in their skin, and routines need to be tweaked accordingly. As temperatures rise, you may find that your oiliness increases as well. More oiliness calls for lighter textures and, for some, moderate use of oil controlling ingredients. You may find that adding a wash with salicylic acid will help to combat excessive shine and more frequent breakouts. Look for a wash with 2% salicylic acid. Use it daily for oily-all-over skin types, and try it three times a week for T-zone-oily skin types. Remember that overuse of salicylic acid can dry, so dial it back a little if you start to dry out.

Increases in oiliness can also often lead to more clogged pores, which can in turn lead to seasonal breakouts. These breakouts are easily controlled. Again, increasing your use of salicylic acid can help, adding either a wash or a light acne control serum. Remember that you still need to hydrate and protect your skin, so don’t skip your moisturizer for fear of making breakouts worse. Instead, switch to a light-weight hydrator, or use a hydrating serum under your sunscreen.

Warmer days often encourage extra sun exposure too, so it is also the time to increase your daily SPF protection. I generally recommend switching to a dedicated SPF and putting your moisturizer with SPF aside until fall. Make sure you amp up to an SPF 30 as well, as you need that extra coverage. You may find that dusting on a mineral SPF powder can give you a mid-day touch up, protecting your skin while blotting some excess shine. I’ve talked about sunscreens more in depth in other posts.

Pigmentation is also a concern in summer months. Diligent use of sunscreen is your best defense against those pesky brown spots. You can add a botanical brightening serum underneath your moisturizer. I usually do this morning and night in order to get a boost in repair, as well as proactively protecting against more damage. I recommend putting your prescriptions or products containing hydroquinone away for the summer since misuse of more aggressive products can actually lead to more damage.

Summer skin problems don’t have to stop your fun. [Tweet this!] A few simple changes to your routine can help keep your skin under control and glowing through the fall!

 

 

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The Usual Suspects

 Adverse reactions to skincare products can be exceedingly difficult to narrow down. But if your skin is burning or itching, it will be worth the effort to try. There are many ingredients that are typically known to cause allergic reactions (hives, rashes, burning, and flaking). You can make your investigation much easier if you begin your search by eliminating the usual suspects in an allergic reaction.

The Usual Suspect: Chemical Sunscreens

Chemical sunscreens, like avobenzone, octinoxate, and oxybenzone, neutralize UV rays in the skin, as opposed to deflecting the rays away from the skin on the surface. Many more reactive skin types can’t handle this level of stimulation and will develop a rash or break out. It is important to note: people are usually only allergic or reactive to one particular sunscreen. This does not give you a free pass to skip sunscreen. Try to narrow down which sunscreen is the problem and avoid it. Or, skip chemical sunscreens all together and use a mineral sunscreen like titanium dioxide or zinc oxide.

The Usual Suspect: Synthetic Fragrance

I hate to break this to you, but if your cream smells like nothing, it probably has a fragrance in it. Creams without any fragrance don’t generally smell great, but they are significantly less likely to cause an allergic reaction. Ingredients to look for are perfume, parfum, or fragrance. In natural products, look for derivatives or essential oils like linalool, limonene, geraniol, or citronellol. It’s also important to note that a certain amount of essential oils must be listed as fragrance, so it can often be difficult to tell just from reading the ingredients. You may not be able to tolerate synthetic fragrance, but a light natural fragrance may be okay. This really depends on your skin, so find out what works for you. I personally can’t stand a heavy perfume in a cream, but I’m a sucker for the natural fragrance and additional benefits of essential oils.

The Usual Suspect: Artificial Colors and Dyes

In skin care, I find these ingredients to be wholly unnecessary. Additionally, they are common irritants and easy to eliminate. I don’t generally recommend anything with artificial colors. The most common allergies are red dye allergies, so unfortunately, you may want to also look at your cosmetics for this suspect. Remember, though, that anyone can be allergic to any color. Start by eliminating red dyes and check the ingredients list for Red Dye #40 (or other numbers), FD&C Red #40, or even ingredients like carmine. It is also interesting to note that ingesting red dye (through food, drinks, candy, etc.) can also cause adverse reactions on the skin.

The Usual Suspect: Essential Oils

This is one of those categories that is very specific to the person. Essential oils are bioactive and may overstimulating to  some sensitive or reactive skins. It is one of those situations where natural may not necessarily be better. Also keep in mind that essential oils can cause photosensitivity, so using them in the sun can exacerbate another problem. These ingredients are usually found towards the bottom of the list, so look for any ingredient with extract or oil in the name. You may be able to tolerate some essential oils and not others, so this particular suspect may require some additional experimentation or research.

Dealing with allergies can be tedious and frustrating, but try not to lose hope. Product shopping becomes significantly easier when you know what to avoid. I have skin allergies that have taken me years to figure out, and I can say from experience that life (and my skin!) is better now that I know. Feel free to contact me if you need support or help, or leave me a comment on this post.

 

Esthetician, P.I.

I visited my sister in Miami last week, and, as usual, having an esthetician around brought up lots of skincare questions. She’s been getting a lot of irritation on her face and chest, and now it’s up to me to figure out what is causing all of it. I think I’ve cracked this case already, and I did it by using my super sleuthing method to find the culprit.

First, I start by asking a lot of questions. When did the problem start? Any new products added about that time? Changes in diet? New medications? In this case, I noticed the irritation popped up after a day on the beach. My major clue here? Environmental factors! This particular reaction is definitely being aggravated by the heat.

Next, I start looking at the products that she’s using. Her routine is pretty simple, and she’s been shopping natural brands at the drugstore to save money. I eventually compare all of the ingredients in her products and try to find the common ones, but I start by looking for my usual suspects in the products she uses the most. She’s using a sunscreen when she goes to the beach (like a good sister of an esthetician), and I notice that the product she used that day has five different chemical sunscreens in it. Chemical sunscreens aren’t necessarily bad, but I find that many people cannot tolerate them. I also see that she’s using another sunscreen with lavender essential oil in it. Since I know that essential oils can cause photosensitivity, I think I may have just hit on the trifecta.

Her routine is fairly simple, so I feel confident that I have figured out the problem. She’s allergic to a specific chemical sunscreen (the common sunscreen in her two products), and the hot, beachy weather combined with the essential oils are compounding her adverse reactions. I put her on the simplest routine possible (exposing the skin to the fewest ingredients possible). She had grapeseed oil and pure aloe on hand, so she can use those for at least two weeks to see if her skin clears up. If it does, we’ve found our perp. If it doesn’t, then I have to continue on with other suspects, like food allergies or medications. After two weeks, and if her skin isn’t breaking out in rashes, we’ll start her on a new sunscreen with a mineral filter instead.

Hopefully, this will close the case on the mystery reaction quickly, but it’s important to remember that even if this is the solution, sometimes the healing process can take a while. Tackling allergies and reactions can be frustrating, so don’t give up. Partnering with a dermatologist or other skin professional can often help, and if redness, hives, or itchiness persist, you should definitely seek one out.

 

 

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